Jutes
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JUTES, the third of the Teutonic nations which invaded Britain in the 5th century, called by Bede Iutae or luli (see BRITAIN, ANGLO-SAXON). They settled in Kent and the Isle of Wight together with the adjacent parts of Hampshire. In the latter case the national name is said to have survived until Bedes own time, in the New Forest indeed apparently very much later. In Kent, however, it seems to have soon passed out of use, though there is good reason for believing that the inhabitants of that kingdom were of a different nationality from their neighbors (see KENT, KINGDOM OF). With regard to the origin of the Jutes, Bede only says that Angulus (Angel) lay between the territories of the Saxons and the Iutaea statement which points to their identity with the Iuti or Jyder of later times, i.e. the inhabitants of Jutland. Some recent writers have preferred to identify the Jutes with a tribe called Eucii mentioned in a letter from Theodberht to Justinian (Mon. Germ. lust., Epist. ui., p. 132 seq.) and settled apparently in the neighborhood of the Franks. But these people may themselves have come from Jutland.  source

Jutes\ (j[=u]ts), n. pl. sing. {Jute}. (Ethnol.) Jutlanders; one of the Low German tribes, a portion of which settled in Kent, England, in the 5th century.

The Jutes were a Germanic tribe who invaded Britain in the 5th century AD. According to Bede the Jutes occupied Hampshire, Kent and the Isle of Wight. Large numbers of Jutes lived in the New Forest in Hampshire and until the 11th century it was known as Ytene (of the Jutes).

The Jutes were Germanic originating in Jutland but later settled in Frankish territory. The Jutes were originally used as mercenaries by the controlling British forces and then settled in Kent in southest England in about 450, according to tradition under Hengist and Horsa. They also conquered the Isle of Wight and the opposite coast of Hampshire in the early 6th century. source

English in Great Britain

When the Roman legions left Britain, the native Britons were left to defend themselves.At this time, the Britons were less warlike than they had been prior to the Roman occupation.The Britons were exposed to the threat of attack from the Picts of caledonia to the north. The Roman patrolling of Hadrian's Wall had ceased. The southern and eastern coasts were also exposed since no Roman fleet patrolled the Channel and the North Sea. The Picts and Scots of Caledonia attacked the northern border. The Britons requested help from the Jutes, a Germanic tribe, to push the Picts and the Scots back.In return for their help, the Jutes were given the Isle of Thanet off the north-east coast of Kent.

The English Conquest
In 449 A.D., the Jutes, led by two brothers, Hengist and Horsa, landed at Ebbsfleet, off the coast of Kent.
Not content with the Isle of Thanet, the Jutes spread all over Kent. The Britons defended the territory fiercely. The Jutish leader, Horsa, was killed at the Battle of Aylesford, but the Britons were eventually forced to draw back. Other Germanic tribes, the Saxons and the Angles, followed the Jutes. Over the next 150 years, a large part of Great Britain was conquered and occupied bit by bit. At first, small groups of Germanic tribespeople crossed the North Sea to Britain with their families, settling on the east coast. With time, the Britons were displaced westwards. By the end of the 6th. century, most of Britain was occupied by the invaders. The Jutes settled in Kent and on the Isle of Wight. The Saxons set up kingdoms in the rest of the south-east in Essex, Middlesex, Surrey, Sussex and Wessex. The Angles settled in the midlands, north and north-east of Britain, with kingdoms in East Anglia, Mercia, Deira and Bernicia. The Jutes, Angles and Saxons were similar in terms of life-style, language and religion. The English nation, though not united, had been formed. 

What happened to the Britons?
During the defence of Britain, many had been killed, others had been taken prisoner and forced into slavery, and many Briton women were forced into marriage with the Germanic occupiers.The remaining Britons took refuge in the extreme western areas of Great Britain, namely, Cornwall, Wales and Cumberland, now Cumbria. Some Britons fled to north-west France and settled in the territory known as Brittany today. For the English, i.e. the Jutes, the Saxons and the Angles, these remaining Britons were called the "Welsh". The Britons in Cornwall were called the "West Welsh", those in present-day Wales the "North Welsh" and those in Cumberland the "Cumbrian Welsh". The Welsh were gradually brought under the control of the English by means of conquest. 

The Effects of the English Conquest
The civilised Britons had been conquered by "barbarians". The Christianised Britons had been replaced by the heathen English. The English conquest of Britain was a setback for Christianity. However, the Christian religion had been driven out of Britain entirely. The Welsh were Christian and so were the Irish who had been converted to Christianity in the 5th. century by St. Patrick. The Welsh and the Irish sent missionaries to convert the Picts and Scots of Caledonia. A great monastery was founded on the island of Iona, off the coast of Scotland. But the Irish, Welsh and Scottish Christians were separated from the rest of Europe and Rome, the centre of European Christianity, by the heathen English. This situation gave rise to the foundation of the Celtic Church. The Celtic Church differed from the Roman Christian Church in that it was nut under the rule of the Pope. The Celtic Church also developed a distinct iconography and set of religious symbols. The English were the only barbarians not to be converted to Christianity soon after occupying a part of the Western Roman Empire. For this reason, there was pressing need on the part of the rest of the Western Roman Empire to convert the English to Christianity. In 590 A.D., Pope Gregory the Great sent Augustine and forty monks to convert the English peoples. In 597 A.D., Christian missionaries landed at Ebbsfleet on the coast of Kent, where the Jutes had first landed 150 years previously. At the time, the King of Kent was a man called Ethelbert.  Ethelbert was not a Christian. However, he was married to Bertha, a Frankish princess, who was a Christian. Berta has refused to give up her religion when she married Ethelbert of Kent. Ethelbert had repaired an old ruined Roman Christian church at a place called Canterbury for Bertha to worship in. When Augustine arrived at the coast of kent, he asked to be permitted to meet Ethelbert. The meeting between Ethelbert and Augustine took place in the open air; Ethelbert was wary of any magical tricks Augustine might play on him! Following their meeting, Ethelbert gave Augustine permission to enter Canterbury to preach to the people of Kent. Ethelbert remained heathen for some time, but then converted to Christianity. The Jutes of Kent followed their king's example and 10,000 Jutes were baptised in one day. Christianity became the religion of the Kingdom of Kent and the religion soon spread to the neighbouring Saxon kingdoms of Essex, Middlesex, Surrey and Sussex. In this way, the territories in the south-east of Great Britain (today referred to as the "Home Counties") became Christian. For his part, Augustine was named the first Archbishop of Canterbury. Bishops were subsequently appointed in Rochester and London. By 627 A.D., Christianity was spreading northwards. Edwin of Northumbria, after whom Edinburgh (Edwin's Town) is named, was king of Bernicia and Deira at the time. Edwin wants to marry Ethelburga, daughter of Ethelbert and Bertha of Kent. Bertha agrees to the marriage on condition that Edwin allows Ethelburga to remain a Christian. Edwin agrees to this condition. On her marriage to Edwin, Ethelberga moves to the north of Great Britain, taking Paulinua, her priest, with her. 

Paulinus converts Edwin to Christianity.
The people of Northumbria follow their king's example. The process of conversion in the rest of England, however, is more gradual. At this time, the Council of Whitby is held at which the Roman Christian Church and the Celtic Christian Church are brought face to face. The Roman Christian Church emerges the dominant Christian Church in Great Britain. In 668 A.D., the Pope sends Theodore of Tarsus, a Greek, to be Archbishop of Canterbury. Theodore of Tarsus is Archbishop of Canterbury for twenty-two years. Theordore appoints bishops all over England and a great number of churches and cathedrals are built throughout the land. On his death in 690 A.D., Theodore leaves behind a well-organised Christian Church in almost the whole of Britain. It had taken nearly a hundred years to convert the English to Christianity and to organise the Church. Although most English people were members of one Church by this time, England was far from being united. The Church of England is older than the unified English nation. The fact that English people were united by a single religion smoothed the way towards their political and social unification. This long period stretching from the time the Romans left Britain in 410 A.D. up to the end of the 9th. century A.D., some six hundred years, is called the Anglo-Saxon period. The period has also been labelled "The Dark Ages". The period may have been "dark" in the sense that Christianity was undergoing a gradual process of assimilation for most of the time. However, the period was characterised by relative peace and a flowering of artistic creativity. Oral literature of the period has come down to the present day in the form of ancient manuscripts written in Anglo-Saxon. The most famous examples of such texts are Beowulf, The Wayfarers and the Icelandic Sagas. source

 

 

 

 

 

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